· Bauxite residue, also referred to as 'red mud',is the by-product of the Bayer process – an industrial chemical process for refining aluminum-containing ores in alumina, the raw material used to produce aluminum metal. The properties of bauxite residues are determined by the type of the bauxite and the Bayer process.
Bauxite residue management is facing a plethora of environmental challenges, several of which arising from dust lift-off events. Unfortunately, our poor understanding of drying processes, and of their dependence on environmental conditions, require prevention and mitigation efforts that may unnecessarily exceed the risks of fugitive dust ...
from bauxite residue impoundments is the most realistic solution to the large and increasing inventory (currently 2.7 Bt increasing to 4 Bt by 2015) of bauxite residue globally.
· Bauxite residue reductive smelting processes can be applied by several technologies (Corex, Finex ®, HIsmelt, Romelt, AusIron and electric arc furnace (EAF)) for the production of pig iron ( 10, 11 ). So far, two methods have been applied at pilot scale for bauxite residue reductive smelting: the Romelt method ( 12) and the EAF ( 13 – 16 ).
· Figure 5: Bauxite Residue filter cake storage at Mytilineos Some of the most significant differences between bauxite residue as an un-processed slurry and bauxite residue as a filter cake relate to water and soda content in the final residue for disposal. The characteristics of filtered (and weathered) bauxite residue (82-77% wt. solids, 1-3% ...
A detailed understanding of the complex buffering and neutralization chemistry of bauxite residue remains the key to improved management, both in terms of reduced environmental impact for current storage practices, legacy costs and for the utilization of the material as an industrial by-product for other applications.
· As alumina production increases so too will the production of bauxite residue (BR), which is generated by the extraction of alumina from bauxite during the Bayer process. The composition of BR is dictated by the bauxite source and the extraction conditions. Further infor-mation is available in Appendix A.
· 103 efflorescence in bauxite residue. Understanding the chemistry behind the 104 efflorescence process gives the best opportunity to target appropriate lower cost 105 mitigation strategies, rather than implementing a suite of traditional binders and 106 stabilizers developed for other dust sources. Application of phosphogypsum (a residue
· Red mud, also known as bauxite residue, is an insoluble byproduct generated from the extraction of alumina from bauxite during the Bayer process (Fig. 1), a crucial step in the manufacturing of aluminum.
· complete understanding of the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the primary aluminium production . ... Bauxite residue (red mud) Carbon waste Dross - landfill Filter dust - landfill Other landfill wastes Refractory waste - …
· Bauxite Technical Note What is bauxite? Hence, the major deposits are generally close to the surface. Bauxite is a mixture of aluminium minerals, clay minerals, and insoluble materials. Three aluminium minerals can occur in bauxite: gibbsite, boehmite and diaspore. Bauxite is the world's principal source of aluminium and can vary
· Bauxite residue is generated from alumina production in the alumina refining industry by the Bayer process, which requires a large amount of land resource and causes serious environmental problems. In this paper, a novel recycling strategy is proposed to rehabilitate the land and produce the polyaluminium ferric sulfate (PAFS) and siliceous gypsum byproducts …
· Bauxite residue (red mud) is generated as a by-product during the processing of alumina (the feedstock for aluminum production) from bauxite ores. With no successful large-scale commercial uses found thus far, the majority of the residue produced continuously during the 117-year-long history of the alumina industry has ended up stored on land ...
It is recognized that for successful establishment of a vegetation cover on bauxite residue disposal areas, soil formation and a greater understanding of the processes of soil development are crucial. The stability of microaggregates is a very important physical property that prevents erosion in bau …
This suggests that the bauxite residue can be deposited every four days after low rainfall events (as low as 1.7 mm) and every nine days after high rainfall events (as high as 300 mm) at the time of deposition, if bauxite residue experiences an initial drying period following deposition. Shaygan, M., B. Usher and T. Baumgartl. 2020.
· 6. Caio Cesar Liberato et al. Effect of calcination of bauxite residue on the rheological properties and hardened state of Portland cement pastes. (Online), Ambiente Construído Vol. 12, (2013), 15-25 (in Portuguese). 7. Roberto Cesar de Oliveira Romano,Evaluation of the physicochemical interactions - between bauxite residue and Portland cement.
· Keywords Bauxite processing residue Bauxite residue Environmental risk Resource recovery Red mud Introduction The Ajka red mud spill in western Hungary in October 2010 was the largest documented release of alumina industry by-products into the environment, with around 1 million m3 of red mud suspension breaching the failed depository wall .
The results enhance the understanding of soil formation in bauxite residue and reveal the potential benefit of human intervention in ecological reconstruction at disposal areas.
· Alumar's bauxite residue disposal area #1: Technology development for Rehabilitation. International Workshop on rehabilitation of mined bauxite lands & red mud disposal areas. 14. Courtney, Roan. and T. Harrington. 2011. "Revegetation strategies for bauxite residue: A case study of Aughinish Alumina, Ireland".
· Bauxite residue is a by-product of the Bayer process in which bauxite ore is physically and chemically transformed to extract alumina, leaving a viscous slurry by-product. The bauxite residue is dewatered to give a slurry of approximately 62–64% solids.
UNDERSTANDING THE HYDROGEOLOGY OF BAUXITE RESIDUE DISPOSAL AREAS AT THE WORSLEY ALUMINA REFINERY, COLLIE, WESTERN AUSTRALIA R. F. Wright, S. C. Davidge, A. M. Speechly, P. B. Johnston 1. INTRODUCTION 1. General Worsley Alumina Pty Ltd (WAPL) has bauxite mining and reﬁning operations in the Darling Range, near Collie, …
the residue during winter months, it was decided to carry out field investigations. The depth to water table, moisture profile within the residue and the nature and vertical extent of the crack system is crucial to understanding the water movement. An initial field investigation involving 5 test pit excavations (Figure 1)
Bauxite residue can vary considerably in composition due to the variability in the natural ores used. Production of I tonne of aluminium (or 2 tonnes of alumina) produces between I .5 and 4 tonnes of bauxite residue (on a dry weight basis). The bauxite residue is highly alkaline, with a pH generally greater than
· understanding desilication products in bauxite refinery residues Page ii Vishakya Jayalatharachchi 2016 Page ii Abstract Bauxite refinery residue (red mud) is a waste by-product generated by the extraction of alumina from bauxite ores [1-3]. Bauxite residue is generated through the Bayer
Red mud (RM, also known as bauxite residue) is one of the wastes generated by the aluminium industry and its disposal and utilization have been traditionally hindered due to …
· b. Production of bauxite residue The amount of bauxite residue produced by an alumina plant or refinery is primarily dependent on the sources of the bauxite and secondarily on the extraction conditions used by the plant. In the extreme, this can vary from 0.3 to as high as 2.5 tonnes of residue per tonne of alumina produced, though typically
· Bauxite residue is the by-product generated by the extraction of alumina from bauxite ore via the Bayer Process, and is typically highly alkaline, saline, sodic, nutrient-poor and may contain trace elements at elevated levels (Power et al., 2011; Zhu et al., 2016; Cusack et al., 2018). The alumina industry produces approximately